| International Daemoo Hapkido Martial Art Association
Master Kwon's Hapkido Karate School
Hapkido - The Art of Coordinated Power
The Philosophy of Hapkido
The Hapkido style of martial arts consists of hundreds of different techniques. The large variety of these techniques can make Hapkido seem a different martial art from one moment to the next. Its kicking and punching make it appear like traditional karate or Tae Kwon Do. Its many throwing techniques cause it to look like Judo. The wrist and joint locks look very similar to Aikido. Grappling and escapes appear similar to Jujitsu. However, Korean Hapkido includes all these different techniques in the single art because it is a self-defense (combat) martial art.
Understanding the nature of Hapkido requires knowledge of actual combat or self defense situations. First, in real situations there are no rules. Second, there is no way to predict the situation an attacker will create. Third, an effective defense requires that your response to aggression must be by reflex and appropriate for the particular attack. Since there are no rules in combat (e.g., a street fight,) Hapkido has techniques to deal with and respond appropriately to any type of attack. Since you cannot predict how someone will attack, Hapkido offers a variety of techniques. A Hapkido practitioner can use the appropriate technique to fit any possible form of attack (hit, kick, grab, etc.). When a Hapkido practitioner is attacked his training is to react reflexively (thinking is too slow) to the attacker rather than with predefined forms. Obviously, this requires a large number and variety of Hapkido techniques. However, they equip the martial artist to handle the no holds barred type of fighting that occurs in real combat or street situations.
Although no one can learn the full range of Hapkido techniques over night, the beginning student immediately learns useful and potent fighting techniques. Yellow belt techniques such as backfist, knee kick, and the elbow strikes are frequently used favorites in the arsenals of many professional kick boxers and self defense specialists. The grab-defense break techniques and low side kick taught for the orange belt will control and disable an attacker whatever his size and strength. These examples are only a few of the techniques taught for just the yellow and orange belt that are the first two belts one receives in Hapkido. The Hapkido student learns serious techniques from the start and throughout his Hapkido career. He should diligently study, practice and learn very well each of these techniques.
The Three Principles of Hapkido
The first principle well look at is the water principle. You will see that the water principle has many meanings. First, look at water flowing easily down hill. When it comes upon a stone or solid rock, it flows around it. From this we can see not to waste time and energy pushing against the rock but simply flow around it.
Observe that a single drop of water has no power or strength. However, many drops of water one drop at a time, will eventually wear away stone. One drop of water will inflict no pain, but a torrent of water can cause great pain. Similarly, one punch may have little power, but many punches in the same spot will wear the opponent downfocus on the one spot.
When you put water in a vessel it fits no matter what the vessels shape. If the vessel is round, the water will become round. If the vessel is square, the water will fit squarely. Like water let Hapkido fit any situation. Whether standing, sitting or laying, Hapkido defense should fit the situation. Whether you are tall, short, fat, or thin you should adapt your Hapkido to fit.
When water freezes it becomes hard like a stone. When water is heated it disappears (evaporates) only to later return (as rain.) You must be able to change states like water. You are normally soft, but with training you can become hard like frozen water. You can learn to move like fluid water, or at times almost disappear only to reappear as you adjust and change.
Water always flows down. Leaking water always drops downward. A river of water always flows down a waterfall. Likewise, always flow your spirit down. As you learn more and gain more confidence dont hesitate to come down and help those who need it. As you obtain more strength then gain greater humility
The circular principle can be seen from several different perspectives. This will show that the circular principle is not just a fighting method but also a universal principle of nature. it applies to ail aspects of life; mental, spiritual and physical.
First, see how the circular principle applies to respect For example, when you come into the Dojang you bow to your instructor as a sign of respect. This custom eventually comes back in a full circle. After many years of study and practice, you become an instructor and your students bow to you as a sign of respect. Also, when a student bows in respect to his instructor the instructor bows in return to the student. If an instructor shows bad manners then the students will learn bad manners. Conversely, when instructors behave properly with dignity the students will mirror this behavior. Those who give respect will have it returned to them.
The circular principle is evident in nature. For example night and day revolve in a never-ending cycle as the earth revolves on its axis. The four seasons of summer, autumn, spring and fall flow in a continuous circle as the earth rotates around the sun. This implies that in nature the circular principle is the basis of harmony between apparent opposites.
In Hapkido techniques the circular principle is used in many ways. In defense force is never met with force, but deflected and redirected. There are also many circular techniques: inside/outside crescent kick, spinning heel kick, roundhouse kick, hammer strike, and spinning side chap. Even the linear reverse punch requires a circular turn at the waist when properly executed Throwing techniques are always circular. Instead of force against your opponents force you use his momentum not your own strength. Even if you are thrown the proper break fall is a circular rolling motion.
The circular principle is to accept nature without stress, achieve harmony where there is opposition and never apply force against force. When you are attacked, you and the opponent are like two separate pieces. Using the circular principle you make the two pieces into one as you get in harmony with your opponent. For example, if you are confronted with anger and you return anger there wil1 be a clash.
However, if you are confronted with anger but you remain calm then the anger will dissipate and understanding can be achieved
This is the third principle of Hapkido. It is the combination of the water and the circular principle, or the "sum" of these two principles.
The sum principle is natural and has many examples in nature. For example, yin and yang are always shown together. They represent balance in the universe between opposite principles. Together they never end and when they are together there is harmony; like night and day.
They can be taken separately since each one is a complete and distinct principle unto itself. However, philosophically, it is the interaction of yin and yang that influences the destiny of creatures and things. Therefore it is the combination of yin and yang that is important.
The sum principle is seen in many other ways. Work and rest are separate and different. But, we must have both to achieve proper balance. Men and women are different. But men alone or women alone cannot make babies. We need both together to complete the cycle of life.
Thus, in Hapkido the sum principle achieves balance and harmony by combining the water principle and the circular principle. When attacked deflect and redirect the attack (circular principle), then now around and through your opponents defenses to counterattack (water principle). Also, the sum principle means concentration where the spirit and body work together.